Last edited: 7 June 2019
This article discusses the cultural variables that play a part in solar cooker dissemination. These perspectives should be of interest to solar cooking promoters, and emphasize the importance of seeking local partners when possible.
- Are there open, sunny spaces near homes, where a solar cooker and food can be safe from theft, tampering, or damage?
- Is cooking already usually done outside?
- When are primary meals served? Around noon and/or around sunset or soon after?
- Do gender roles allow and/or encourage women to participate in community groups and decision-making in family financial matters?
Food preferences and customs vary by culture and promoters should consider whether high-heat frying consumes a significant portion of household fuel. In cultures where most foods are fried, parabolic cookers may be the most suitable, while in cultures where frying is less important, lower-cost box cookers and panel cookers may be the most practical and economical choice.
Here are a few other variables promoters should consider:
- How many people does each woman cook for in the community?
- What size or style of cooker suits a particular family's needs?
- What pots are used? Will they work for solar cooking, and will they fit in the chosen cooker(s)?
- What time of day do women buy the day’s food?
- Is there enough time after purchasing the food to solar cook it?
- Will they have time to solar cook both lunch and dinner?
Knowing local food customs can help promoters find niches where solar cookers can have dramatic pay-offs. For example, in Hausa communities in West Africa, there are often a significant number of people involved in small businesses that roast chickens. These chicken roasters could be a great market for solar box cookers.
In much of the developing world, meals are composed of two parts. There is usually s staple like rice or a grain or tubers, plus a flavoring of vegetables and sometimes meat often called the "soup." It is desirable that a solar cooker be capable of cooking both simultaneously or be inexpensive enough to allow the use of more than one cooker.
Gender, expectations, and cookers
When introducing solar cooking to a group of people, it is critically important to be sensitive to the role that gender plays with regard any difference in decision-making power between men and women. In many cultures, women often do most of the cooking, while men make the financial decisions for the family. As a result of their separation from the family's food preparation, men may be reluctant to spend money to improve the conditions of their cooking facilities.
When introducing solar cooking to a culture, immediate acceptance and adoption should not necessarily be expected. In certain cases, cultural gender roles have caused women to fear reprisal from their husbands if food prepared with a solar cooker tastes different than food cooked on a traditional stove. A study from Central America by Dr. Dulce Cruz discussed a project in which women organized into groups to build and learn to use solar cookers. Some men in the community were threatened by the fact that their wives were getting out of the house, meeting with other women, and learning new skills. Domestic abuse has been reported in these situations.
There have been reports in Africa of opposition to solar cookers because men were afraid that the cookers would provide women time to be idle. In those families that rely on gathered firewood instead of purchased wood or charcoal, women and girls usually do most of the fuel collecting. Under some economic analyses, the time spent gathering the wood would be considered a “cost” of cooking. However, in many places, time spent by women and girls doing work is not assigned a recognized value. Therefore, “saving” their time through solar cooking does not have a recognized value. In many cases, it is not exclusively a gender issue. Work that does not bring cash income may be less valued than work that does produce tangible economic gains.
Another reported reason for rejecting solar cookers is that an indoor cooking fire is effective at reducing the number of insects that live in the roof of the family dwelling. It has been reported that in some places, women have taken to working together in hot, smoky kitchens with a cooking fire because the heat and smoke keep the men away and allow the women a space of their own. For others, the cleanliness, lack of smoke, and image of modern living brought on by using a solar cooker are reasons that are attractive to women in the developing world, even as others cling to the old and traditional ways.
On the other hand, there have been instances of male acceptance of solar cooking where men praise their wives’ move to solar cooking because of the lack of smoke and soot. Some men have said that with solar cooking, their wives do not smell like smoke, look better (no red eyes from smoke and soot), feel better (reduced coughing), and have more time for the family.
In fact, in some projects, especially in the Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya, a surprising cultural change was noticed: men began cooking their own meals, citing that solar cooking was a clean and modern alternative to traditional cook stoves. This change in sentiment may have also been partly due to the fact that the circumstances which led people to become refugees also disrupted families, leaving some men with no female relatives available to cook for them. By removing the least desirable aspects of cooking: reduced heat, pollution, and reliance on finite fuel sources, solar cookers can lead men and women to share cooking chores more equally, acting as a catalyst of enormous cultural change.
Belief systems and cookers
- Anecdotal evidence exists that some cultures reject square solar box cookers because they believe that circular shapes are the symbol of perfection.
- In parts of Nepal, people were reluctant to use solar cookers because they believed the god of the household hearth was an important spirit who would be offended if meals were not cooked on a fire on the hearth.
- There has been some reluctance to accept using solar cookers in Madagascar, as solar cooking is not the tradition, and hence, not sanctified by the Ancients. A new program is planned to invite an Ancient to participate, and to have a sorcerer to sanctify the proceedings.
- It has been reported that during solar cooking demonstrations in Haiti, people grew fearful when the food started to cook, convinced that black magic must have been involved. There are similar cases in parts of Africa where cooking food without fire is perceived as the work of the devil.
- In the United States, the influential solar cooking leader Barbara Kerr was visited by an engineering professional who spent much of the day trying to make his point that a cardboard solar box cooker could not possibly cook food. He continued his argument while his lunch was cooking in a box cooker at his feet, and maintained that the cooker could not work even after he had eaten the solar cooked food.
In all five of the above cases, solar cookers were outside the experience and belief systems of the people being introduced to it. In such cases, it is normal and understandable for people to attempt to explain solar cooking in such a way that fits with their understanding of the science.
There are certain cases where solar cooking can fit well with established belief systems. For example, in the Jewish traditional laws (Hallacha) pertaining to the Sabbath, there are several restrictions such as not lighting a fire, using a fire only under strict restrictions, and not cooking on a fire (with certain exemptions, like continued warming from the previous day) and in modern times these restrictions were extended to electricity. Solar cooking offers a viable alternative to a traditional cooking fire that complies with the Hallacha laws. Eighty per cent of Israeli households already use solar water heating, in accordance with the local law, so there is precedent in the Jewish community for harnessing the sun in functional ways. There are even some ancient discussions written in the Jewish holy scriptures that discuss cooking or baking in the sun, including mentions of solar cooking in the Sinai Desert, during the exodus at biblical times. If taken at face value, these texts state that it is permitted to cook food in the sun on the Sabbath. There is debate surrounding modern interpretations on these texts, especially in Israel where the majority of population keeps to tradition.
Geo-thermal heating and cooking have also been discussed in the Jewish community for use on the Sabbath. While solar heating has received a generally positive response, geo-thermal heating has received a negative one, comparing it to man-made fire, and declaring it as undesired on the Sabbath.
When religion must be considered when introducing solar cooking, highlighting its historical uses in the given culture may aid in its acceptance.
Practical benefits of solar cooking
For many, the practical benefits and advantages of solar cooking are reason enough to adopt the technology. For example, some African farmers celebrate their ability to carry lightweight solar cookers into their distant fields, providing them with the capability to cook food while they work and giving them a hot meal with little extra effort. In East Africa, women's groups make extra money by using solar cooking to meet an important, but niche, cultural aspect that many in Western countries take for granted—baking birthday cakes. Baking cakes is virtually impossible on a three-stone fire, but is relatively simple in a solar box cooker.
While it is wonderful that solar cookers can provide convenient lunches and celebratory desserts, the most important benefit of solar cooking lies in its ability to offer a smoke free alternative to indoor cook stoves. Solar Cookers International (SCI) has received hundreds of letters from people around the world who decry the coughing and pneumonia that are linked to indoor cooking smoke. When indoor stoves that rely on finite fuel are the only source of cooking power in a culture, it is often reserved for cooking food and other needs, like water purification, are left ignored. SCI has received many pleas from people in developing countries who describe the suffering, especially among children, from diseases carried in their drinking water and who seek information on water pasteurization.
Full realization of solar cooking's benefits--economic and health-related--only occurs if people successfully incorporate solar cooking into their lives on a long-term basis. An elder in a Somali community who had been using solar cookers on a regular and widespread basis for several years told a neutral monitor of the project the following:
“Forest is rain, forest is fuel energy, forest is crop…livestock…money. Forest, in general, is livelihoods. By reducing their destruction and reclaiming them…most of us have just started witnessing how valuable these solar cookers are.”
Speed of adoption
Despite the benefits of solar cooking, it is understandable that some cultures would be slow to adopt it. A study comparing several solar cooker projects in Ladakh, India, examined this phenomenon and found that acceptance of solar cooking corresponded with existing incorporation of modern technology and customs. Simply put, a culture that already had moderate exposure to the developed world was more likely to embrace solar cooking and communities that were more remote and less affected by developed countries were less likely to do so. The researchers found that if traditional ways are already changing in a culture, the suggestion to incorporate solar cooking may be met with a more positive response. In many places in the world, the choice to keep using traditional cooking methods is becoming increasingly less viable due to decreasing supply and rising prices of traditional fuels.
During a solar cooker project in Central America, promoters introduced wooden box cookers to a group of women. Initially, the women did not like them because the cookers sat on the ground and women had to sit, bend over, or crouch to use them. In response, the promoters started building the box cookers with legs, so that the oven would be at or near waist height, mimicking the experience of using a traditional oven. Acceptance improved greatly, reinforcing the importance of listening to the local people about their needs and preferences. However, in many cultures tables and even chairs are not used or missed.
Economics of solar cooking
In a previous project in western Kenya, Solar Cookers International sold low-cost cookers at subsidized prices to low-income rural women. SCI had been told that the women in that culture do not believe in going into debt so they refused to buy the cookers on credit. This proved to be a challenge as many of the women could not afford to pay the full cost as a single payment. To overcome this barrier, the women paid small installments until they paid the full price at which time they took delivery of the cooker. From a western financial perspective, accepting the cooker after the first payment would make more sense as the women could pay the rest of the installments using the money they saved by not needing to purchase firewood anymore. The reluctance to go into debt of any kind makes the purchase of cookers more difficult, which slows down the dissemination process.
For people raised in industrialized-consumer cultures, one of the best advantages about solar cookers is that they can pay for themselves in a few months by reducing spending on wood, charcoal, or gas. The idea that an investment now will lead to recurring savings month after month in the future is one of solar cooking greatest benefits. However, in some cultures, ideas about investing and gaining small, but permanently recurring savings are not developed the way they are in the West. Cultures that have limited experience with modern economics are less likely to have the concepts of investing, savings, and return on investment be integral in their society.
Some solar cookers are so inexpensive that the cost of the awareness-building and teaching activities is far higher than the cost of the cookers needed to supply a community. But even in these cases, the cost of the cookers--or the supplies to make them--is a factor that challenges low-income organizations even as it challenges low-income individuals.
Many of the less expensive cooker types can be made at home or by semi-skilled craftspeople. But in many remote villages--and in many not-so-remote provincial capitals--key supplies such as aluminum foil or glass may be unavailable or prohibitively expensive.
New markets for solar cookers in developed countries
Attention needs to be given to expanding the market for solar cookers in developed countries. There is no reason to neglect this opportunity, both for direct gains to the environment in promoting use of renewable energy from the sun, and to meet demand from an increasing interest in solar cooking. Households in developed countries can generally afford to invest in solar cooking without the hesitation that might naturally occur in a household in a developing country with only scarce resources. The decision to try solar cooking is a relatively small risk for an affluent family, as a negative outcome will not significantly affect the prosperity of the household.
Since early this century, homebuyers in the US have demonstrated an increased interest in energy efficient features when shopping for a new home. They may even be motivated to install a fairly expensive photovoltaic array for generating their own electricity. At first, the reason often given for doing this was "It is the right thing to do", or it will help out when the power grid system is interrupted by weather damage or supply issues, but many have also begun to see the financial benefits, as system costs have decreased. The US government has offered modest tax relief for home photovoltaic systems, and it has made the difference for many wanting to install a system. This group of consumers would potentially make good customers for solar cookers. Tax credits for energy efficient appliances could extend to solar cookers.
Focus on design, beauty, luxury, and convenience. Solar cooking can easily be re-imagined with these parameters in mind, and the resulting revised technologies, supported by modern consumer marketing methods, would likely win a much greater market share. The perception must be that this is an appliance of value and desirability, which is often based on aesthetics. Consumers will be a blend of users happy to build their own modest cardboard cookers, and others will want the latest, best reviewed, and visually exciting high quality cooker. This later group may be tempted to stray from the over-represented traditional market of slick stainless backyard barbecues.
Solar cookers designed for the North American and European markets will need to better accommodate lower sun angles as well. A number of the early available cookers were designed for overhead sun conditions closer to the equator.
Unbiased uniform information on the performance aspects of solar cookers also needs to be established. It is becoming increasingly difficult for consumers and project organizers to evaluate the differences in performance, quality, and ease-of-use of solar cookers, as more products are being introduced to the world market all the time. In 2016, Solar Cookers International and the International Solar Energy Society began the process of creating an open-source solar cooker testing program called the Performance Evaluation Process (PEP). More information about the program can be seen at Performance Evaluation Process developments , and at Performance Evaluation Process.
As Barbara Knudson concluded in her definitive paper, State of the Art of Solar Cooking written in 2004, "Participation of market forces is needed, as partner to the many voluntary organizations and individuals who are currently seeking ways to spread solar cooking more widely around the globe, and at a faster pace." The cultures of developed countries are spreading, and there will be a somewhat of a coming together at the middle with less developed nations. Hopefully this will help create yet untapped markets for solar cookers.
Audio and video
- July 2014
- July 2014
- July 2014
- July 2014
- May 2013
- January 2017: Public Policy to Support National and Local Movement of Solar Cookers - Pedro Serrano
- April 2016: Poor people don't need your charity – they need you to listen - World Economic Forum
- April 2016: Key Disruptors for the 21st Century - Julie Greene, Solar Cookers International, USA
- March 2015: The Burning Question - Heifer International
- August 2014: Factors Influencing Household Uptake of Improved Solid Fuel Stoves in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Qualitative Systematic Review - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.
- June 2014: A (new) cultural turn toward solar cooking—Evidence from six case studies across India and Burkina Faso - Pia Otte
- October 2013: Factors influencing the large-scale uptake by households of cleaner and more efficient household energy technologies - Elisa Puzzolo, Debbi Stanistreet, Daniel Pope, Nigel Bruce, Eva Rehfuess
- November 2012: An Analysis of Solar Cooker Usage - Bashir Ahmad
- May 2012: Identifying the barriers to the deployment of solar cookers in the energy-poor households of sub-Saharan Africa - Sarah Cochetel
- October 2009: Cookstove and Obstacles to Technology Adoption by the Poor - Xander Slaski and Mark Thurber
- August 2010: New research reconfirms acceptance of solar cooking - Solar Household Energy
- July 2006: Chances and Limitations of Solar Cookers - Agnes Klingshirn
- July 2006: Integration of Local Culture and Perception in Marketing of Solar Cookers - Mahnaz Saremi Shakerin
- July 2006: Dissemination of Solar Cooker Information - Mamata Dutta
- July 2006: Why are Solar Cookers Still Unpopular Among Development Experts? - Paul Krämer
- July 2006: Integrated Approach for Promoting Solar Cookers in Rural Areas of Tamil Nadu - Dr. Sathyavathi Muthu and Ms. G. Anuradha
- July 2006: An Example of an Informal Strategy for Dissemination of Solar Cookers - Heike Hoedt
- July 2006: Destination New Partnership - A Map For Accelerated Spread of Solar Cookers - Pascale Dennery
- Enhancing the acceptance of solar cooking in India
- Moving ahead with solar cookers by GTZ. This is an interesting article in general, but pages 11 and 12 are most closely related to culture issues
- Solar Box Cookers in Ladakh - An interview with a solar cooker promoter active in Ladakh in the 1980s and includes some comments on culture.
- A short section on cultural factors - A part of a larger article by Marc Aalfs about adapting solar box cooker designs.
- Solar Box Cookers in Zimbabwe by Patrice Rodgers - An in-depth examination of one solar cooking introduction project, with insights on cultural issues interwoven with economic and technical issues.
- The special challenges of solar cooking by Charles Onyango-Oloo - A article discussing a variety of issues from a Kenyan point of view, including to some extent the culture and attitudes of solar cooking promoters.
- The Fuel Wood Crisis in Burkina Faso: Solar Cookers As An Alternative by Paul Krämer - A study which includes comments on Burkinabe culture related to solar cooking.
- A Market-Based Strategy for Introducing Passive Solar Ovens in Kenya - A marketing study performed by graduate students from the Michigan School of Business. Among many considerations discussed, some cultural factors are included.
- Solar Cookers and Social Classes in Southern Africa by William Grundy - Reports culture-related observations of an individual.
- Social Acceptance of Solar Stoves in South Africa - Reviews results of a comparative test of solar cookers and includes comments on culture.
- Guidelines for specific foods (rice, ugali, injera, etc.)
- The Special Challenges of Solar Cooking by Charles Onyango-Oloo - A review of the technological, cognitive, and institutional challenges facing solar cooking.
- A Story Illustrating the Application of Solar Cooker Design Principles in a Field Project by Mark Aalfs - A short story about the introduction of solar cooking to a small town in Central America.
- State of the Art of Solar Cooking: A Global Survey of Practices & Promotion Programs - by Barbara Knudson - An extensive article on the history of solar cooking.
- Solar Cooking Dissemination Approaches and Experiences in Nepal, Mongolia, and Peru - by Allart Ligtenberg - An overview of introducing solar cooking to three countries with experiences, observations, conclusions, and advice.
- Why to be Wary of "Design for Developing Countries" - Krista Donaldson
- CASEP Lessons Learned
- Promoting solar cooking
- Project evaluations
- What one person or a small group can do to promote solar cooking - Ramon Coyle
- Solar cooking in developing countries
- Solar Wall Oven (A design that allows convenient use from inside of a house)