Last edited: 15 February 2016      

The Vajra Foundation Holland (Stichting Vajra) has worked in the Bhutanese refugee camps in Nepal since 1995 to bring solar cooking and heat-retention cooking to the refugees there. By 2006 some 100,000 refugees were cooking their meals using these methods. The on-the-ground work is done by Vajra Foundation Nepal and financing is provided by the Dutch Lottery and the Dutch NGO Stichting Vluchteling.

In 2009, the project is slowly being phased out. Vajra collects solar ovens of departing refugee families, repairs them and distributes them among the last refugees who are not yet in possession of a solar cooker.

By 2015, more than 100,000 Bhutanese refugees had been resettled in other countries. Approximately 13,000 Bhutanese refugees remain in the camps although current data about their use of the solar cookers that were left behind is unavailable. There are unconfirmed reports from the Varja Foundation that Nepalese families living near the abandoned camps are now using these solar cookers.[1]

Most significant projects

Vajra Foundation Nepal 2013 multiple

Bhutanese refugees demonstrating parabolic solar cookers in Nepal.

  • 85,000 refugees from Bhutan have solar cooked their meals in Nepal - The Vajra Foundation Holland (Stichting Vajra) has worked in the Bhutanese refugee camps in Nepal since 1995 to bring solar cooking and heat-retention cooking to the refugees there. By 2013 some 85,000 refugees were cooking their meals using these methods. The on-the-ground work is done by Vajra Foundation Nepal and financing is provided by the Dutch Lottery and the Dutch NGO Stichting Vluchteling.

Factors for success

  • Unwavering belief that solar cookers can improve lives and environments
From the start Vajra Foundation has considered solar cookers to be an appropriate technology for the Bhutanese refugees. Whereas other solar cooking projects have folded after minor setbacks, Vajra Foundation has fully supported the project from day one. As stated in a Vajra Foundation report, “How can one expect local people to be in favor of solar cooking when the NGO introducing it does not support it fully?”
  • Continuous drive to adapt and improve the technology
As the program has progressed, adjustments have been made to the solar cookers to better meet the needs of the users and assemblers. Local materials have been used when possible to help lower costs. Design modifications — like cooker frame adjustments — have been incorporated as needs were assessed. Perhaps most importantly, the hay box was introduced as a compatible technology, addressing the need for warm food after sundown as well as the need to share solar cookers between families. Vajra Foundation believes strongly in pairing hay boxes with solar cookers, stating, “They are two sides of the same coin: one cannot go without the other.”
  • Willingness and ability to incorporate user feedback
Refugees have been involved in the project from the start, setting up user meetings, trainings, etc. Feedback from the users is incorporated into the project plans, helping to identify technological and programmatic areas for improvement.
  • Strong teamwork between cooperating partners
The relationship between the Holland branch and the Nepal branch of the organization was critical. While VFH had access to funds and specialist knowledge, the Vajra Foundation Nepal (VFN) knew how to best incorporate solar cooking into lives of Nepalese and Bhutanese refugees. While VFH solicited and organized volunteers, VFN hosted them with great care and was eager to learn from them. The chairmen of both foundations, Ramkaji Paudel and Maarten Olthof, were the backbone of the project. Jointly, the two visited partner agencies, refugee camps, workshops, etc., and solved issues that arose. Importantly, responsibilities were given to staff members, such as Dor Bahadur Bhandari, and to the refugees, who did the fieldwork and organized solar demonstrations and lunches that ultimately convinced authorities that the project was worth supporting.
  • Monitoring, follow up, and evaluation
With proper monitoring, follow up, and evaluation, useful program adjustments are made continuously. Regular visits with the new solar cooks highlighted areas of need, as did feedback from user group meetings. Weather records were kept for purposes of determining actual solar cooker use versus potential solar cooker use. Funds were tracked and adjustments made to maximize their use.

Audio and video

  • February 2010:
Solar Cooking Project in Nepal by Stichting Vajra

Solar Cooking Project in Nepal by Stichting Vajra.wmv-0

Solar cooking project in a Bhutanese refugee camp in 2007 with Vajra Foundation Nepal.

See also

External links


Maarten Olthof
Varja Foundation Holland
Oudegracht 246-B
3511 NV Utrecht

Tel: +31 619400886

Web: - (English version)


  1. Refugee Camps and Solar Cookers (2016, McArdle)
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